Sunday, June 28, 2009

Acesulfame-K (acesulfame potassium; Sunett)

This non-caloric, ARTIFICIAL SWEETENER tastes approximately 200 times sweeter than table sugar (SUCROSE) and lacks the bitter aftertaste of SACCHARIN. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization endorsed acesulfame-K as a satisfactory artificial sweetener in 1983. Acesulfame-K was approved in 1988 by the U.S. FDA as a sugar substitute to be used in packets or as tablets and now is approved for use in chewing gum and in powdered drink mixes. Unlike ASPARTAME, acesulfame-K can be used in cooking because it does not break down at oven temperatures. Blending Sunett with other low-calorie sweeteners creates a beverage with a more sugarlike taste than one sweetened with any single low-calorie sweetener.
The Center for Science in the Public Interest has raised questions about Sunett’s safety, saying a few tests on rats indicated a possibility of cancer, although this was not proof that the sweetener could cause cancer. The Calorie Control Council counters that the safety of acesulfame potassium has been confirmed by more than 90 studies, and it is endorsed by a committee of the World Health Organization. Theoretically, it would not be expected to be absorbed by the body. Nonetheless, some studies suggest that large doses raise blood CHOLESTEROL levels in diabetic laboratory animals and increase the number of lung and mammary tumors in other animals.

Acerola (acerola cherry, acerola berry) Acerola

fruit is a product from the Caribbean and is one of the richest natural source of VITAMIN C. Acerola juice contains nearly 40 times more vitamin C than orange juice. Acerola extract is sometimes added to natural vitamin C supplements. Because of its very limited availability, the amount added to supplements is usually very small; an acerola-enriched vitamin C preparation may contain as little as a tablespoon of acerola extract per barrel of vitamin C powder.

What is Food absorption?

Generally, the passage of liquids into solid materials and of gases into liquids and solids. In terms of nutrition, absorption refers to the passage of substances into body fluids and tissues.
Digestion is only the first step in the assimilation of nutrients. This chemical breakdown of food particles releases AMINO ACIDS, GLUCOSE, FATTY ACIDS, VITAMINS, and MINERALS, which must then be absorbed by the intestine in order to be used by the body. Nutrients enter cells lining the intestine (the intestinal mucosa) and then are drawn into underlying cells, where they may enter either the lymph or bloodstream for distribution to tissues throughout the body. Tissues absorb nutrients from blood via capillaries, the smallest blood vessels. Gases, too, are absorbed. Blood becomes oxygenated in the lungs by absorbing oxygen from inhaled air and releasing carbon dioxide that was absorbed from tissues.
Absorption requires a disproportionately large surface area to meet the body’s needs. Consider the total area of the small intestine, which is a highly specialized absorptive organ. Though this tube is only about 20 feet long, it has a highly convoluted surface. Furthermore, the cells lining the surface, VILLI, are covered with microscopic, hairlike projections (MICROVILLI) that dramatically increase the absorptive area to a quarter the size of a football field. The microvilli move constantly, to trap nutrients and partially digested food, which is further digested. The upper regions of the small intestine, the lower DUODENUM, and upper ILEUM, are most active in absorbing nutrients. Other regions of the gastrointestinal tract carry out limited absorption:
The stomach absorbs some ALCOHOL, glucose, ions, and water, and the colon absorbs primarily water and minerals.